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Vue provides a variety of ways to apply transition effects when items are inserted, updated, or removed from the DOM. This includes tools to:
- automatically apply classes for CSS transitions and animations
- integrate 3rd-party CSS animation libraries, such as Animate.css
On this page, we’ll only cover entering, leaving, and list transitions, but you can see the next section for managing state transitions.
Vue provides a
transition wrapper component, allowing you to add entering/leaving transitions for any element or component in the following contexts:
- Conditional rendering (using
- Conditional display (using
- Dynamic components
- Component root nodes
This is what a very simple example looks like in action:
When an element wrapped in a
transition component is inserted or removed, this is what happens:
Vue will automatically sniff whether the target element has CSS transitions or animations applied. If it does, CSS transition classes will be added/removed at appropriate timings.
There are six classes applied for enter/leave transitions.
v-enter: Starting state for enter. Added before element is inserted, removed one frame after element is inserted.
v-enter-active: Active state for enter. Applied during the entire entering phase. Added before element is inserted, removed when transition/animation finishes. This class can be used to define the duration, delay and easing curve for the entering transition.
v-enter-to: Only available in versions >=2.1.8. Ending state for enter. Added one frame after element is inserted (at the same time
v-enteris removed), removed when transition/animation finishes.
v-leave: Starting state for leave. Added immediately when a leaving transition is triggered, removed after one frame.
v-leave-active: Active state for leave. Applied during the entire leaving phase. Added immediately when leave transition is triggered, removed when the transition/animation finishes. This class can be used to define the duration, delay and easing curve for the leaving transition.
v-leave-to: Only available in versions >=2.1.8. Ending state for leave. Added one frame after a leaving transition is triggered (at the same time
v-leaveis removed), removed when the transition/animation finishes.
Each of these classes will be prefixed with the name of the transition. Here the
v- prefix is the default when you use a
<transition> element with no name. If you use
<transition name="my-transition"> for example, then the
v-enter class would instead be
v-leave-active give you the ability to specify different easing curves for enter/leave transitions, which you’ll see an example of in the following section.
One of the most common transition types uses CSS transitions. Here’s a simple example:
CSS animations are applied in the same way as CSS transitions, the difference being that
v-enter is not removed immediately after the element is inserted, but on an
Here’s an example, omitting prefixed CSS rules for the sake of brevity:
Look at me!
You can also specify custom transition classes by providing the following attributes:
enter-to-class(>= 2.1.8 only)
leave-to-class(>= 2.1.8 only)
These will override the conventional class names. This is especially useful when you want to combine Vue’s transition system with an existing CSS animation library, such as Animate.css.
Here’s an example:
Vue needs to attach event listeners in order to know when a transition has ended. It can either be
animationend, depending on the type of CSS rules applied. If you are only using one or the other, Vue can automatically detect the correct type.
However, in some cases you may want to have both on the same element, for example having a CSS animation triggered by Vue, along with a CSS transition effect on hover. In these cases, you will have to explicitly declare the type you want Vue to care about in a
type attribute, with a value of either
New in 2.2.0
In most cases, Vue can automatically figure out when the transition has finished. By default, Vue waits for the first
animationend event on the root transition element. However, this may not always be desired - for example, we may have a choreographed transition sequence where some nested inner elements have a delayed transition or a longer transition duration than the root transition element.
In such cases you can specify an explicit transition duration (in milliseconds) using the
duration prop on the
You can also specify separate values for enter and leave durations:
These hooks can be used in combination with CSS transitions/animations or on their own.
done callbacks are required for the
leave hooks. Otherwise, they will be called synchronously and the transition will finish immediately.
It’s also a good idea to explicitly add
If you also want to apply a transition on the initial render of a node, you can add the
By default, this will use the transitions specified for entering and leaving. If you’d like however, you can also specify custom CSS classes:
We discuss transitioning between components later, but you can also transition between raw elements using
v-else. One of the most common two-element transitions is between a list container and a message describing an empty list:
This works well, but there’s one caveat to be aware of:
When toggling between elements that have the same tag name, you must tell Vue that they are distinct elements by giving them unique
key attributes. Otherwise, Vue’s compiler will only replace the content of the element for efficiency. Even when technically unnecessary though, it’s considered good practice to always key multiple items within a
In these cases, you can also use the
key attribute to transition between different states of the same element. Instead of using
v-else, the above example could be rewritten as:
It’s actually possible to transition between any number of elements, either by using multiple
v-ifs or binding a single element to a dynamic property. For example:
Which could also be written as:
There’s still one problem though. Try clicking the button below:
As it’s transitioning between the “on” button and the “off” button, both buttons are rendered - one transitioning out while the other transitions in. This is the default behavior of
<transition> - entering and leaving happens simultaneously.
Sometimes this works great, like when transitioning items are absolutely positioned on top of each other:
And then maybe also translated so that they look like slide transitions:
Simultaneous entering and leaving transitions aren’t always desirable though, so Vue offers some alternative transition modes:
in-out: New element transitions in first, then when complete, the current element transitions out.
out-in: Current element transitions out first, then when complete, the new element transitions in.
Now let’s update the transition for our on/off buttons with
With one simple attribute addition, we’ve fixed that original transition without having to add any special styling.
in-out mode isn’t used as often, but can sometimes be useful for a slightly different transition effect. Let’s try combining it with the slide-fade transition we worked on earlier:
Pretty cool, right?
Transitioning between components is even simpler - we don’t even need the
key attribute. Instead, we just wrap a dynamic component:
So far, we’ve managed transitions for:
- Individual nodes
- Multiple nodes where only 1 is rendered at a time
So what about for when we have a whole list of items we want to render simultaneously, for example with
v-for? In this case, we’ll use the
<transition-group> component. Before we dive into an example though, there are a few things that are important to know about this component:
<transition>, it renders an actual element: a
<span>by default. You can change the element that’s rendered with the
- Elements inside are always required to have a unique
Now let’s dive into a simple example, transitioning entering and leaving using the same CSS classes we’ve used previously:
There’s one problem with this example. When you add or remove an item, the ones around it instantly snap into their new place instead of smoothly transitioning. We’ll fix that later.
<transition-group> component has another trick up its sleeve. It can not only animate entering and leaving, but also changes in position. The only new concept you need to know to use this feature is the addition of the
v-move class, which is added when items are changing positions. Like the other classes, its prefix will match the value of a provided
name attribute and you can also manually specify a class with the
This class is mostly useful for specifying the transition timing and easing curve, as you’ll see below:
This might seem like magic, but under the hood, Vue is using a simple animation technique called FLIP to smoothly transition elements from their old position to their new position using transforms.
We can combine this technique with our previous implementation to animate every possible change to our list!
One important note is that these FLIP transitions do not work with elements set to
display: inline. As an alternative, you can use
display: inline-block or place elements in a flex context.
These FLIP animations are also not limited to a single axis. Items in a multidimensional grid can transitioned just as easily:
Keep hitting the shuffle button until you win.
Transitions can be reused through Vue’s component system. To create a reusable transition, all you have to do is place a
<transition-group> component at the root, then pass any children into the transition component.
Here’s an example using a template component:
And functional components are especially well-suited to this task:
Yes, even transitions in Vue are data-driven! The most basic example of a dynamic transition binds the
name attribute to a dynamic property.
This can be useful when you’ve defined CSS transitions/animations using Vue’s transition class conventions and simply want to switch between them.
Finally, the ultimate way of creating dynamic transitions is through components that accept props to change the nature of the transition(s) to be used. It may sound cheesy, but the only limit really is your imagination.